Avoiding Plagiarism and MLA, Chicago, APA Style Guides
According to Dictionary.com, plagiarism is "the unauthorized use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one's own original work." Remember, when you quote directly, paraphrase, or summarize a work, you must give credit to that work or author!
Each student should carefully read the following links, courtesy of the Duke Library System; these links provide information for avoiding plagiarism and methods for citing information in an ethical manner.
What to cite, how to cite within your paper, & assembling a works cited page - includes MLA, APA, & Chicago citation styles
"The Chicago Manual of Style Quick Guide" updated to include all necessary online resources. Upper School History classes have started using this citation style.
When citing books provide the following general categories of information:
Author's last name, first name. Book title. Additional information. City of publication: Publishing company, Publication date.
Book with one author:
La Guardia, Anton. War Without End: Israelis, Palestinians, and the Struggle for a Promised Land. New York: Thomas Dunne Books, 2002.
[Use shortened forms of publisher's names. For example, Chelsea House Publishers becomes Chelsea.]
Two or more books by the same author:
[(After the first listing of the author's name, use three hyphens and a period for the author's name. List books alphabetically.]
Houston, Pam. Cowboys Are My Weakness. New York: Washington Square Press, 1992.
---. Waltzing the Cat. New York: Washington Square Press, 1998.
Book with two or more authors:
[If there are more than three authors, you may list only the first author followed by the phrase et al. (the abbreviation for the Latin phrase "and others") in place of the other authors' names, or you may list all the authors in the order in which their names appear on the title page.]
Polk, Milbry, and Mary Tiegreen. Women of Discovery: A Celebration of Intrepid Women Who Explored the World. New York: Clarkson Potter, 2001.
Book with a corporate author:
American Political Amnesia Society. Celebrating Ignorance. New York: Tomas Duenter Books, 2001.
Book with an editor rather than an author:
Dawidoff, Nicholas, ed. Baseball: A Literary Anthology. New York: Library of America, 2002.
Reference Book with volume number:
"Anarchism." Modern Germany. Vol. 1. New York: Garland, 1998.
When citing information from CD-ROMs provide the following general categories of information:
Author's last name, first name. "Article title." Periodical title. Date: inclusive pages. Title of database. CD-ROM. Name of vendor or computer service. Electronic publication date or date of access.
"Zebra." Mammals. Vers. 1.1. CD-ROM. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic, 1993.
Huey, Raymond. "Tuatara". World Book, 2001 ed.
[Encyclopedias which frequently appear in new editions do not require full publication information. Give the edition (if available) and the year of publication]
"Douglas Adams" Lives and Works: Young Adult Authors. Danbury: Grolier, 1999.
Electronic Encyclopedia (World Book Online):
Dempewolff, Richard F. "Hillary, Sir Edmund Percival." World Book Online. 2002. World Book. 04 Oct. 2002
< http://www.worldbookonline.com/ >.
[Note there are two dates in the citation above: 1.date the site was posted or copyrighted and 2.date the site was accessed.]
When citing articles in periodicals provide the following general categories of information:
Author's last name, first name. "Article title." Periodical title. Date: inclusive pages.
When citing information from the Internet and Web resources provide the following general categories of information:
Author's last name, first name. "Article title" or Book title. Publication information for any print version. Or subject line of forum or discusson group. Indication of online posting or home page. Title of electronic journal. Page numbers or the numbers of paragraphs or sections. Name of institution sponsoring Web site. Date of access .
Waldren, Seamus. "I Love Marmite." 22 Oct. 2002 < http://www.ilovemarmite.com/ >.
"This Day in Automotive History." History Channel. 22 Oct. 2002
< http://www.historychannel.com/tdih/auto.html >.
United States. Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook 2002. "Cook Islands." 22 Oct. 2002
< http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/cw.html> .
[Author. "Title of Posting." Online posting. Date when material was posted. Name of listserv. Date of access .]
Sprott, Damian. "Re: Freeware for translating Cyrillic fonts." Online posting. 12 May 2005. EdTech. 17 Oct. 2005 .
[When available, give both the date of electronic publication and the date when you accessed the source. Place angle brackets < > around the URL.]
Fricke, David. "Dancing with Mister D: Keith Richards - the Rolling Stone Interview." Rolling Stone 17 Oct. 2002: 48 - 53.
[Abbreviate all months except May, June and July. Do not put a period between a magazine or newspaper name and the date. MLA format for dates is day month year.]
Brown, Erika and Daniel Fisher. "The Thriller B's" Forbes 30 Sept. 2002: 296+. EBSCOhost. Kent Denver Library. 7 Oct. 2002 .
[For online products include: author's name. "Title of article." Title of magazine or newspaper day month year (may include edition for newspaper): page range (if known) or first page and + sign. Name of online source. Library name, Location i.e.name of city. Day month year of access .]
Nagourney, Adam and Janet Elder. "Public says Bush Needs to Pay Heed to Weak Economy." New York Times 7 Oct. 2002: A1+.
["A" is the newspaper section. Use + if the article extends to another page. Do not use The or A before the newspaper name.]
Online (NewsBank InfoWeb):
Simon, Cecilia Capuzzi. "A Walking Cure - Exercise May Treat Depression, and This Doctor Prescribes It." Washington Post 11 June 2002. NewsBank InfoWeb. Kent Denver Library. 7 Oct. 2002
[If no author is given, start with the title of the article]
"Indonesia." CultureGrams 2002. Orem, UT: CultureGrams, 2002.
|Video and Television Recordings|
10 Things I Hate About You. Videocassette. Touchstone Home Video, 2002.
The Cable Guy. HBO, 20 Oct. 2002.
"Blood Brothers." C.S.I: Criminal Intent. NBC. KDEN, Denver. 29 Oct. 2005.